Monday, 26 February 2018


WHAT IS NEXMONEY BUSINESS FULL EXPLAIN IN TAMIL

WHAT IS NEXMONEY BUSINESS FULL EXPLAIN IN TAMIL


Corporate Identity Number : U72900PN2013PTC149783 I hereby certify that NEXGEN INVENTIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PRIVATE LIMITED is this day incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 (No. 1 of 1956) and that the company is private limited.


WHAT IS NEXMONEY BUSINESS FULL EXPLAIN IN TAMIL

March 07, 2018

     🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳

       WELCOME TO NEXMONEY BUSINESS

                   

👉ஒரு நபரிடம் எப்படி Nexmoney பற்றி பேச வேண்டும்✅save this message🙏

1.கம்பெனி மற்றும் ஓனர் விவரங்களை தெரிவிக்கவும்✔

பதில்:👉Nexgen Inventive Information Technology Private Limited  என்ற பெயரில் 11-12-2013-ல் தொடங்கப்பட்டது.அதன்பிறகு nexmoney company ஆக ஜனவரி 2017-ல் வெற்றிகரமாக வளர்ந்தது.நம்ம nexmoney கம்பெனி புனேய்-ல இருக்கு.nexmoney முழுக்க முழுக்க அராசங்கம் அனுமதிபெற்ற கம்பெனி.N exmoney Md Sir name Abhishek kumar burman.google ல Youngest Chairman and manging director (cmd) of india nu தேடுங்க அனைத்து தகவல்களும் இருக்கும்.


2.எதற்காக nexmoney company துவங்கப்பட்டது✔

பதில்:👉வேலையில்லா திண்டாட்டத்தை ஒழிக்கவும்.சுய வேலை வாய்ப்பை (self empolyed) அதிகரிப்பதற்காகவும் Digital india ஆக உருவாக்கவதற்காகவும் தொடங்கப்பட்டது தான் நம்ம Nexmoney.

3.1770 Rs எதுக்காக கட்டணனும் சொல்லுங்கள்✔

பதில்: 👉Nexmoney company ல நீங்கள் membership ஆக வேண்டும் அதற்காக தான் 1770Rs கட்ட வேண்டும்.நீங்கள் 1770Rs கட்டும் போது 270Rs GST-க்கு போகும்.மீதி 1500Rs கம்பெனி உங்களுக்கு Reward points-ல் கொடுக்கிறார்கள்.

4.அப்புறம் என்ன என்ன service இருக்குனு சொல்லுங்கள்✔

பதில்:👉நீங்கள் இந்த ஆப் மூலம்

1.All network Recharge

2.Data card Recharge

3.Dth Recharge

4.Insurance

5.Gasbooking

6.Eb bill

7.Water bill

8.Bus ticket

9.Train ticket

10.Flight ticket

11.Movies ticket

12.Hotel booking

13.Merchant service

5.Nexmoney service-ல எவ்ளோ cashback கிடைக்கிறது என்று சொல்லுங்கள்

பதில்: 👉Recharge,datacard,dth Recharge and insurance இவை அனைத்திற்கும் 2% cashback கிடைக்கும் (Individual person).

Bus,flight,train booking-ற்கு 3% cashback and 2% Reward points usage-ல் கிடைக்கும்.Hotel booking-ற்கு 10% cashback கிடைக்கும்.(nexmoney tie-ups hotel only) மற்றும் Nexmoney company tie-ups பண்ணிருக்க (Amazon,flipkart,ajio,shopclues,etc)online shopping-ற்கு 2% cashback கிடைக்கும்.

Movie tickets nexmoney-யின் மூலம் பண்ணினால் உங்களுக்கு 10% cashback கிடைக்கும்.(individual person)  

6.எந்தெந்த level-க்கு எவ்ளோ Income-னு சொல்லுங்கள்✔

பதில்: 👉 UPTO LEVEL 10 COMMISSIONS DETAILS :

LEVEL 1 - 300Rs
LEVEL 2 -  30Rs
LEVEL 3 -  45Rs
LEVEL 4 -  60Rs
LEVEL 5 -  75Rs
LEVEL 6 -  90Rs
LEVEL 7 - 105Rs
LEVEL 8 - 120Rs
LEVEL 9 - 135Rs
LEVEL 10 - 150Rs

👉10 LEVEL INCOME PLAN:

நீங்கள் வெறும் 5 நபர்களை Refer பன்னாலே உங்களால் 10 வது Level லிலேயே 146 கோடி ரூபாய் சம்பாதிக்கலாம்...

➡1st Level - 5members x 300 Rs = Rs. 1500

➡2nd Level - 25 x 30 = Rs. 750

➡3rd Level - 125 x 45 = Rs. 5,625

➡4th Level - 625 x 60 = Rs. 37,500

➡5th Level - 3125 x 75 = Rs. 2,34,375

➡6th Level - 15625 x 90 = Rs. 14,06,250

➡7th Level - 78125 x 105 = Rs. 82,03,125

➡8th Level - 390625 x 120 Rs. 4, 68,75,000

➡9th Level - 1953125 x 135 = Rs. 26,36,71,875

➡10th Level - 9765625 x 150 = Rs. 146,48,43,750

7.Repurchase income என்றால் என்ன?

பதில்:👉உங்கள் அணியில் 10levl-ல் செய்யப்படும் அனைத்து வகையான transection-ற்க்கும் (All Recharge,shopping,booking and etc) 25% Cashback கிடைக்கும்.உதராணமாக உங்கள் மொத்த அணியில் 10-வது level வரை 100000rs-க்கு transection நடந்தால் 25% (25000Rs) cashback கிடைக்கும்.இதை 10level-ற்கு பிரித்து கொடுக்கும் போது ஒவ்வொரு level-க்கும் 2500rs cashback கிடைக்கும்.

8.Refer-income-ல-என்ன பயன்பாடுகள்-இருக்கு.அதை எப்படியலாம் பயன்படுத்தலாம்✔

பதில்:👉நான்கு விதமாக பயன்படுத்தலாம்.

1.Own usage
2.Redeem
3.IMPS
4.Wallet to Wallet

1.Own usage:உங்களுடைய nexmoney wallet balance-ஐ வைத்து அனைத்து Service-ற்கும் பயன்படுத்த முடியும்.

2.Redeem:நீங்கள் பெறும் வருமானத்தை Redeem option மூலம் உங்கள் bank account-ற்கு widraw பண்ணிக்கலாம்.Redeem option-ல் minimum 500rs இருந்தால் மட்டுமே widraw பண்ண முடியும்.நீங்கள் widraw செய்யும் வருமானம் நான்கு நாட்களுக்குள் உங்கள் Bank-ல் Credit ஆகி விடும்.

3.IMPS:நீங்கள் Redeem-ல் பெறும் வருமானத்தை உடனடியாக உங்கள் Bank account-ற்கு மாற்றிக் கொள்ளலாம்.உதாரணமாக நீங்கள் 500Rs Imps பண்றீர்கள் என்றால் உங்களுடைய nexmoney wallet balance-ல் (5rs+1%) tax போகும்.

4.Wallet to Wallet:உங்களுடைய wallet balance-ஐ வேறொரு nexmoney wallet-ற்கு அனுப்ப முடியும்.

9.1770Rs எப்படி கட்ட வேண்டும்✔

பதில்:👉Nexmoney-ல் நீங்கள் Register செய்த பிறகு எதாவது ஒரு option-ஐ தொட்டால் Upgrade membership-னு கேட்கும்.அதை ஓபன் செய்தால் உங்களுடைய wallet balance zero காண்பிக்கும்.

Fill the deatils:

1.Pan card number போட வேண்டும் (pan card இல்லையென்றால் empty ஆக விட்டு விடவும்)

2.உங்கள் ஆதார் கார்டு நம்பரை போடவும்.

3.Nomine name போடவும்.(E.g:உங்களுடைய அப்பா அல்லது அம்மா அல்லது மனைவி அல்லது குழந்தைகளின் பெயரினை போடலாம்)

4.Nomine Age:
__________________
5.Nomine Relation:
__________________

6.Area pincode:
__________________

7.I Accept all terms and conditions box-ஐ டிக் செய்து upgrade now option ஐ click செய்தால் Payu money gateway open ஆகும்.அதில் cards,bank,upi என மூன்று option இருக்கும்.அதில் cards option-ஐ select செய்து உங்களுடைய credit or debit card Number-ஐ போட வேண்டும்.அதன்பிறகு card validity month and year போட வேண்டும்.பிறகு cvv code-ஐ போட்டு submit கொடுக்கவும்.பிறகு உங்களுடைய bank registration mobile number-க்கு otp வரும் அதை போட்டு submit கொடுத்த உடன் உங்களுடைய mobile number and email-ற்கு 1770rs எடுத்ததற்கான sms and email வரும்.அதன் பிறகு 1770rs உங்களுடைய nexmoney wallet balance-ல் add ஆகி விடும்.பிறகு மறுபடியும் நீங்கள் எந்த option-ஐ upgrade membership என கேட்கும்.அதை ஓபன் செய்து பார்த்தால் wallet balance-ல் 1770rs add ஆகியிருக்கும்.மறுபடியும் நீங்கள் upgrade now எனும் Option-ஐ click செய்தால் உங்களுக்கு congratulations என்று காமிக்கும்.கூடவே உங்களுடைய refer link-கும் காமிக்கும்.நீங்கள் refer செய்து கொள்ளலாம்.

10.Royalty bonus na என்னவென்று சொல்லுங்கள்✔

1.silver rank(1%)
2.gold rank(2%)
3.diamond rank(3%)
4.Company royalty

1.Silver Rank:உங்களுடைய அணியில் நேரடியாக 5 Members-ஐ membership ஆக்கி நீங்கள் 10 level-ஐ அடைந்தால்  நீங்கள் silver rank ஆகிவிடுவீர்கள்.உங்களுக்கு மாதந்தோறும் 1% Royalty bonus  கிடைக்கும்.

2.Gold Rank:உங்களுடைய அணியில் நேரடியாக 5 Members-ஐ membership ஆக்கி நீங்கள் 5 silver rank-ஐ உங்கள் அணியில் level 1-ல் எடுத்தால்  நீங்கள் gold rank ஆகிவிடுவீர்கள்.உங்களுக்கு மாதந்தோறும் 2% Royalty bonus  கிடைக்கும்.

3.Diamond Rank:உங்களுடைய அணியில் நேரடியாக 5 Members-ஐ membership ஆக்கி நீங்கள் 5 gold rank உங்கள் அணியில் level 1-ல்  எடுத்தால்  நீங்கள் Diamond rank ஆகிவிடுவீர்கள்.உங்களுக்கு மாதந்தோறும் 3% Royalty bonus  கிடைக்கும்.

4.Company-Royalty:உங்களுடைய அணியில் நேரடியாக 5 Members-ஐ membership ஆக்கி நீங்கள் 5 diamond rank உங்கள் அணியில் level 1-ல்  எடுத்தால்  நீங்கள் Diamond rank ஆகிவிடுவீர்கள்.உங்களுக்கு மாதந்தோறும் Company Royalty bonus  கிடைக்கும்.

11.Nexmoney wallet-ல் Money எப்படி add பண்ணுவது என்று சொல்லுங்கள்✔

பதில்:👉wallet option சென்று add money option click செய்து எவ்வளவு வேண்டுமானாலும் money add பண்ணிக்கலாம்.நீங்கள் add பண்ணும் money-ஐ Redeem and imps பண்ண முடியாது.

12.Rewards points என்றால் என்ன? அதை எங்க எங்க பயன்படுத்த முடியும்✔

பதில்:👉1.All Recharge-(can use now 1%)

2.Bus,train,flight,hotel,merchant service,nexmoney shopping இந்த  இடங்களில் எல்லாம்  கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சமாக பயன் படுத்த முடியும்.உதாரணமாக நீங்கள் 1000rs-ற்கு bus ticket book செய்யும் இடத்தில் use reward points box-ஐ டிக் செய்தால் reward points-ல் 25Rs போக 975Rs செலுத்தினால் போதும்.உங்கள் டிக்கெட் உடனடியாக Email-க்கு Nexmoney என்ற பெயரில் வந்து விடும்.

13.Nexmoney Merchant app என்றால் என்ன✔

பதில்:👉Playstore சென்று nexmoney merchant app-ஐ install செய்து Register option ஓபன் செய்து அதில் உள்ள அனைத்து தகவல்களையும் சரியான முறையில் பூர்த்தி செய்யவும்.உதாரணமாக  உங்களுக்கு தெரிந்த கடைகள் அல்லது உங்களுக்கு சொந்தமான கடைகளையோ எந்த ஒரு முதலீடு இல்லாமல் nexmoney Company-ல் tie-ups செய்து கொள்ள முடியும்.இதற்கும் discount உண்டு.

14.நமது Nexmoney Company-யின் தொலைநோக்கு (vision) திட்டம் என்ன?

பதில்:👉2020-ல் 2020 nexmoney கோடீஸ்வரர்கள் உருவாகி இருக்க வேண்டும் என்பது தான்.

மேலும் விவரங்களுக்கு click this website👉👉👉👉👉👉 www.nexmoney.in செல்லவும்.
இது தாங்க நம்ம nexmoney business வாழ்த்துக்கள்.

More information contact ur upliners.. thank you..the power of jai nexmoney.

Regards,

✍NEXMONEY TEAM✍

🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳🐦🇮🇳

NEXMONEY BUSINESS FULL INFORMATION

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

ABOUT NEXMONEY BUSINESS

March 08, 2018

COMPANY INFO:

Mailing Address as per record available in Register of Companies office:
NEXGEN INVENTIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PRIVATE LIMITED
S. NO.19A/3B,K K MARKET,, OFF DHANKWADI,
PUNE - 411043,

Maharashtra, INDIA.

LEEGAL DOCUMENTS:

INCORPORATION CERTIFICATE:

DBS CERTIFICATE:


PAN CARD: 
GOODS SERVICE TAX(GST CERTIFICATE): 

MSME CERTIFICATE:









READ MORE

NEXMONEY HELPLINE

HI EVERY ONE INTRESTED THIS BUSINESS AND YOU WANT MORE INFORMATION NEXMONEY BUSINESS PLEASE CONTACT THIS NUMBERS:

📢IMPORTANT NOTE:📢 
(Tamil And English Language Only) 
☎CALLING AND WHATSAPP NUMBERS AVAILABLE MORNING 10AM TO EVENING 9PM ONLY✔ 
TRICHY HELPLINE  NUMBERS: 
👉Name:j.jesu 
👉Call:86103 62376 
👉Whatsapp:86103 62376 
💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠 
👉Name:Rajeswari 
👉Call:99650 65738 
👉whatsapp:99650 65738 
💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠 
COVAI HELP LINE NUMBERS: 
👉Name:Guru Ashwin 
👉Call:79040 83521 
👉Whatsapp:79040 83521 
💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠 
👉Name:Arun Kumar 
👉Call:80722 47608 
👉Whatsapp:80722 47608 
💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠 
CHENNAI HELPLINE NUMBERS: 
👉Name:Buvanesh 
👉Call:99625 31172 
👉Whatsapp:99625 31172 
💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠 
👉Name:Arun Kumar 
👉Call:95247 51680 
👉Whatsapp:95247 51680 
💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠💠 


WHAT IS NEXMONEY BUSINESS FULL EXPLAIN IN TAMIL



The Evil Bond in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice: The Source of Irrationality

The Evil Bond in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice: The Source of Irrationality

The trial of Antonio in a Venetian court of justice begins. The Duke of Venice warns Antonio, the defendant, that the plaintiff (Shylock) is "a stony adversary . . . uncapable of pity . . . [and] void . . . of mercy." Antonio declares that he is ready to suffer quietly. He knows that "no lawful means" can save him now. Shylock is called then, and when he enters, the duke says that everyone — "the world thinks, and I think so too" — thinks that he should relent at the last moment and spare Antonio, taking "pity on his losses." But Shylock is adamant; he prefers the penalty of a pound of flesh to repayment of three thousand ducats. Why? "Say," says Shylock, "it is my humor." In other words, Shylock wants the pound of flesh for no rational reason. He wants it only because of "a lodged hate and a certain loathing" for Antonio.
Bassanio then tries to reason with Shylock — but without success. Antonio tells Bassanio that he is wasting his time. He himself asks for no further pleas; he begs that judgment be quickly given. Bassanio cannot believe that his friend is serious. He offers six thousand ducats, but Shylock refuses. The duke then asks Shylock a question: "How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none?" In reply, Shylock cites the mistreatment of many Venetian slaves by the Venetians themselves, justified by the fact that they bought the slaves and can treat them as they please; likewise, the pound of flesh which he has "dearly bought" belongs to him, and he can do with it as he pleases. He therefore demands an immediate judgment confirming this right.
The duke declares that he is waiting for a certain "Bellario, a learned doctor," to arrive from Padua before he makes a final decision concerning this case. This matter is too weighty for one man to render a single opinion on; therefore, Shylock's demand for judgment will have to wait, and he will have to cease his demand — or else the duke "may dismiss this court."
Bassanio meanwhile tries to cheer up Antonio, vowing that he himself shall give Shylock his own life in place of Antonio's "ere [Antonio] shalt loose for me one drop of blood." Antonio, however, is without hope. He tells Bassanio to "live still, and write mine [Antonio's] epitaph."
At that moment, Nerissa enters the courtroom, dressed like a lawyer's clerk, and delivers a letter from Bellario to the duke. While the duke reads the letter, Shylock whets his knife on the sole of his shoe to the horror of Antonio's friends. The clerk of the court then reads aloud the letter from Bellario. The doctor is ill, but he has sent in his place "a young doctor of Rome," named Balthasar, whose wisdom in the law belies his youth. Bellariosays that he never knew "so young a body with so old a head," and he asks the duke for his "gracious acceptance" of Balthasar in Bellario's stead.
The duke welcomes young Balthasar, who is, of course, Portia "dressed like a Doctor of Laws." Portia acknowledges that she is familiar with this case and its "strange nature," and she is equally acquainted with the integrity of Venetian law. She asks Antonio if his bond is a valid one, and he admits that it is. She then tells him that Shylock must be merciful. At this, Shylock is shocked: Why should he be merciful? Because, Portia answers, "mercy is . . . [like] the gentle rain from heaven"; mercy is "twice blest; / It blesseth him that gives and him that takes." She continues and says that mercy is an attribute of God. It is freely bestowed to temper justice, and those who grant mercy ennoble themselves, especially those people who have the power to dispense punishment and yet award mercy instead. She points out to Shylock that all people "pray for mercy" and "that same prayer" should teach us all to "render the deeds of mercy."
Her speech is lost on Shylock. He "crave[s] the law" and "the penalty and forfeit of [his] bond." He does not care that Bassanio has offered him "thrice the sum" of the bond or even "ten times o'er"; Shylock demands the penalty. Portia pronounces that Venetian law is indeed binding, and whenever decrees are established, alterations set a precedent and "many an error" has been the result. Thus, Antonio's bond is legal, and Shylock can collect the pound of flesh.
Shylock hails the wisdom of this young judge, calling him "noble," "excellent," "wise and upright." He then produces the scales on which he will weigh the flesh, but he balks at Portia's suggestion that he himself personally pay a physician to attend Antonio to see that he does not bleed to death. A judgment is a judgment, and nothing in Antonio's bond mentioned Shylock's hiring a physician. Antonio then turns to Bassanio, bids him farewell, and asks to be commended to Bassanio's "honorable wife," for whose cause the loan was arranged in the first place. He tells Bassanio to tell Portia that he, Antonio, loves Bassanio; Bassanio loses only a friend who loves him dearly. This is all, and "if the Jew do cut but deep enough," death will come quickly. Both Bassanio and Gratiano assure Antonio that they would sacrifice everything they have — even their wives — to save him. Both Portia and Nerissa — the Doctor of Law and her clerk of law — comment on this; they doubt that the wives of these loyal friends would "give little thanks" for that offer.
Impatient to proceed, Shylock makes ready to begin, but before he can carry out the sentence, Portia stops him. "There is something else," she says. Shylock is legally entitled to take a pound of Antonio's flesh — but no more. That is, Shylock may not take even a single "jot of blood." She then gives Shylock leave to begin his surgery, warning him that if "one drop of Christian blood" is shed, Shylock's "lands and goods" will be confiscated by "the state of Venice."
Shylock realizes that he has been foiled. Thus he says that he is now willing to take Bassanio's offer of three times the amount of the bond. Portia decides otherwise. Shylock shall have "nothing but the penalty" — "just a pound of flesh" — no more, no less. And if he takes even "in the estimation of a hair" more than a pound of flesh, he will die and all his goods will be confiscated. Gratiano jeers at the moneylender; now the tables are turned. Realizing that he is beaten at his own game, Shylock asks for only the amount of the bond — and Bassanio offers it — but Portia points out that all the court was witness to Shylock's refusing the money. Therefore, he can have "nothing but the forfeiture," which he can still take, but at his own peril. In addition, Portia reminds Shylock that one of the laws of Venice forbids an alien from directly or indirectly attempting "to seek the life of any citizen" of Venice. She tells Shylock that she has seen sufficient proof that Shylock seeks Antonio's life both directly and indirectly. Thus, she commands him to "beg mercy of the Duke." At this point, the duke speaks and pardons Shylock, sparing his life and adding that the penalty of the state's taking half of Shylock's goods will be reduced if Shylock evidences some "humbleness." Shylock is adamant at such a proposal: "Nay, take my life and all," he declares.
Following the duke's merciful example, Antonio says that he will take only half of Shylock's goods which are due to him (Shylock can have the other half) in trust in order to give them to Lorenzo (Shylock's son-in-law) upon Shylock's death, on two conditions: first, Shylock must become a Christian, and second, he must deed everything to Jessica and Lorenzo. Quietly, Shylock agrees to the settlement: "I am content," he says, and asks permission to leave the court.
The duke invites Portia to dinner, but she declines; she also declines Bassanio's offer of three thousand ducats as her legal fee. Both Antonio and Bassanio press Portia to take something; they are both exceedingly grateful for all she has done, and Portia finally agrees to take two tokens as a "remembrance." She asks for Bassanio's gloves, and she also asks for his ring. Bassanio pales; she can ask for anything, he says, but ask not for his ring. It was a present from his wife, who made him promise never to part with it. Portia pretends indignation: She wants "nothing else" but the ring; "methinks I have a mind to it." She tells Bassanio that he is only "liberal in offers." He is, in effect, asking her to beg for the ring — an insult. Turning, she leaves. Antonio pleads with his friend; surely the lawyer deserves the ring. At last, Bassanio yields and sends Gratiano after the lawyer to give him the ring. He then turns to Antonio and tells him that early the next morning they will "fly toward Belmont."
Analysis
We now reach the dramatic high point of the play. In this scene, the matter of the "bond" reaches its crisis and its resolution: Shylock is defeated, Antonio is saved, and the lovers are free to return to Belmont; thus, Shakespeare gives us the happy ending which a romantic comedy requires.
In the introductory speeches by the duke and Antonio, we are reminded of the antithetical positions of the two adversaries. The Duke of Venice himself calls Shylock "an inhuman wretch, / Uncapable of pity," and Antonio characterizes himself as lost — "no lawful means" can save him. Sympathy surrounds Antonio, but dramatic sympathy is also structured around the solitary figure of Shylock. He is an intensely sympathetic figure here, alone in his solitude, surrounded on all sides by his enemies. This will be even more striking at the moment of his defeat.
By asking Shylock to show mercy toward Antonio, the duke provides Shylock with a final opportunity to restate his position and, dramatically, Shakespeare prolongs the suspense of whether or not Shylock will actually demand Antonio's life. Throughout this scene, Shylock is asked, both by the court and by his opponents, why he refuses to relent toward Antonio. In each case, his answers are themselves unanswerable; he "stands upon the law"; the law is a creation of those who are now asking him to break it. Shylock's principles are as good, and better, than his inquisitors; it is under their law that he has "sworn / To have the due and forfeit of my bond." However, Shylock goes beyond this and, in effect, he admits that his desire for revenge lies in the "lodged hate" that he bears toward Antonio. Although he professes to stand on the letter of the law, Shylock reveals quite clearly that his real motive has nothing to do with right or wrong, justice or injustice, but with his desire to destroy another human being — a Christian who has publicly scorned and spit upon him. This admission is important, since it figures later in Portia's plea, in her powerful "quality of mercy" speech.
Antonio knows that mercy is unlikely from Shylock, and Shakespeare tightens the tension of this scene by having Antonio beseech Bassanio to stop trying to win any sympathy from Shylock. It is no use; Shylock insists upon having justice carried out according to the law. Yet, while Shylock is demanding "justice," Shakespeare makes absolutely clear to the audience that Shylock's inhumanity, his obsession with revenge, is what motivates his demands. When Shylock says, "the pound of flesh . . . is dearly bought, is mine, and I will have it," he is not speaking of "rights" anymore; he is demanding his enemy's blood.
Tension increases further when Nerissa (as the law clerk) is announced, and she presents the letter from Bellario to the duke. Tension increases almost unbearably as the duke reads the letter and Shylock pulls out his knife and begins to sharpen it on the sole of his shoe. It is an almost melodramatic touch, giving Shylock's inhumanity powerful, visible form. Shylock now seems in complete command, secure in the knowledge that, legally, he has bested everyone in the courtroom. He, an alien Jew, in a Christian community that has spurned him, has triumphed over prejudice and has won in a Venetian court because of the binding integrity of Venetian law.
When Portia is brought on in disguise, Shakespeare sustains the tension still longer by having her question the legality of the bond — Antonio may not have agreed formally or he may have agreed to another set of conditions. Her question "Do you confess the bond?" emphasizes once more that no avenue of escape is possible for Antonio. He answers that he agreed to the bond. The "quality of mercy" speech that follows is a last plea; seemingly, Portia sees no other hope for Antonio. Thus, she confirms the "decree established," and this gives her yet one moment more to think of some new strategy. In a moment of inspiration, she asks to see the bond; she inspects it, and she discerns a flaw: Antonio's flesh may be forfeit, but nothing has been stipulated concerning the letting of blood. Thus she, like Shylock, decides to stand on the absolute letter of Venetian law: Shylock may indeed claim "a pound of flesh, to be by him cut off / Nearest the merchant's heart." She can declare this, knowing full well that Shylock's knife will never touch Antonio. This explains her surprisingly legal coldness; Portia knows exactly what she is doing. At this point, however, the audience doesn't, and this, of course, adds to the tension of the scene.
Thus she proceeds with methodical legality — until the last moment, when she says, understatedly, "Tarry a little; there is something else," words which will reverse the whole situation. Now it can be demonstrated anew that Shylock remains merciless in order to justify the punishment which he finally receives. Portia's delay demonstrates this and shows us Shylock's insistence on the absolute letter of the law, for it will be in accordance with the law that Shylock will punish Antonio. When Portia orders Antonio to "lay bare your bosom," Shylock is able to quote from the bond; "So says the bond. . . . 'Nearest his heart'; those are the very words." And when Portia humanely asks Shylock to "have . . . some surgeon . . . to stop his wounds," Shylock is appalled at Portia's lack of legalese: "Is it so nominated in the bond? . . . I cannot find it; 'tis not in the bond." Clearly, Portia is leading Shylock slowly into a trap which he has prepared for himself with his reply to her plea for mercy, "My deeds upon my head! I crave the law."
At this point, the dignity which Shylock possessed at the scene's beginning and the sympathy which Shakespeare evoked for him has now gone, as he exults over Antonio's approaching death. As an avenger of past wrongs by Antonio, Shylock gained some sympathy from the audience; now, whetting his knife and anticipating with relish the moment when he will be able to use it, he becomes a butcher and loses that sympathy. All of this is necessary for the total effect of the play; this is why Shakespeare wisely makes Portia delay final pronouncements and then ingeniously begin to reveal new interpretations of absolute justice. Shakespeare is manipulating, with genius, the sympathy of the audience.
Antonio's seemingly last speech at line 263 has a dignified nobility; he declares once more his love for Bassanio; he asks him neither to grieve nor repent. At this point, the situation is a potentially tragic one, and once more Shakespeare needs to remind his audience that this play is not, finally, tragic. He achieves this at the moment of greatest tension when he allows the drama to slacken for a moment, and we listen in on the little exchange between the disguised wives (Portia and Nerissa) as their husbands declare their love and loyalty for one another; we chuckle when we hear Portia and Nerissa comment on these "last" words between Antonio and Bassanio. The "judge" and the "clerk" agree that the wives of these two gentlemen would not be happy to hear their husbands exchange such avowals of ready sacrifice of lives for one another.
The turning point of this act and of the play occurs at line 304: "Tarry a little; there is something else." Obviously, Shylock has come toward Antonio and now stands with his knife raised to strike, while the group on stage stands transfixed. Portia's voice, still calm, cuts through the silence. With Portia's pronouncement that the law allows "no jot of blood," Shylock's case is lost. He is almost struck dumb; "Is that the law?" is all he can ask. He was absolutely certain that his trust in the law was inviolate. The law that he believed to be so solid crumbles before him, and he realizes that his case is now absolutely, irrevocably reversed.
The law goes on to condemn him, reversing his position so completely that he himself is threatened with death. Shylock's last appearance before us, in total defeat, can, in some cases, depending on the actor, win back some of the sympathy lost earlier in this scene. But he is given little to say in comment upon the judgment passed upon him. Here, silence is the most powerful kind of eloquence. One can hardly imagine his next-to-the-last line, "I am content," uttered in any other way than in almost a whisper. He has been defeated — he, a Jew — in a Venetian, Christian court of law, and as part of his punishment, he has had to agree to become a Christian. This is an ultimate punishment for so orthodox a Jew; he is so stunned that he begs his judges: "I pray you give me leave to go from hence: / I am not well. Send the deed after me, / And I will sign it." This is a masterstroke of simple, understated pathos. Now, Shylock has lost everything. He has shown us, however, how hate breeds hate, and Shakespeare has demonstrated how hate is finally, ultimately, defeated. Through Shylock's extreme behavior, Shakespeare dramatizes the way in which the laws of justice and property on which society is based can be, without charity and mercy and humanity, as ferocious as the law of any jungle. This, then, rather than the legal quibbles, is what is important in this scene. There is no denying that the rule of law is necessary. But law, when it is not tempered with mercy, is, as Shakespeare vividly shows us, both inhuman and destructive.
Since this is the central scene of the play and since it turns on our interpretation of Shylock, it follows that the way we see Shylock here determines the way we see the whole play. If he is played as a near-tragic figure, the conflict between mercy and justice is to some extent obscured. Shylock is left stripped of his daughter, his property, and his religion. That seems a harsh judgment; at times, it is difficult to see Shylock as anything but a figure of pathos. We tend to agree with the nineteenth-century writer Hazlitt, who wrote that "certainly our sympathies are oftener with him than with his enemies. He is honest in his vices; they are hypocrites in their virtues." On this point, we ought to recall three things. First, for the Elizabethan audience, Shylock was not just a "characterization"; he was the "villain" of a romantic comedy, and as such, he has to be punished. Second, Shylock's money, which he had hoarded for himself, is to go to Lorenzo and Jessica, two of the play's lovers. Love and hate are thematically opposed in this play, and since Shylock is slowly revealed to be the embodiment of hate, there is a satisfying kind of justice in his riches going to a pair of lovers. And third, the court's judgment that Shylock become a Christian would have pleased the Elizabethan audience immensely. They all genuinely believed that only a Christian could achieve salvation; they would see the court's decision as a chance for Shylock to achieve salvation. Thus the judgment was imposed, quite literally, for the good of Shylock's soul.
After Shylock's exit, the play, which has, at times, come near to tragedy, and which has had, because of Shylock, an element of pathos, reverts completely to the tone of a romantic comedy. The barrier to the true fulfillment of love has been removed. It remains only for us to return to Belmont for the closing act of the play; the threats and conflicts of this act are removed and are replaced by an atmosphere of love and concord.


The Evil Bond in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice

The Evil Bond in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice

Act IV, Scene One
Antonio is brought before the Duke and the magnificoes of Venice to stand trial for failing to pay off his obligation to Shylock. The Duke is upset about the penalty, a pound of Antonio's flesh, but cannot find any lawful way of freeing Antonio from his bond. Shylock enters the court and the Duke tells him that all of the men gathered there expect him to pardon Antonio and forgive the debt.
Shylock replies that he has already sworn by his Sabbath that he will take his pound of flesh from Antonio. He is unable to provide a good reason for wanting to punish Antonio in this manner, other than to say, "So can I give no reason, nor I will not, / More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing / I bear Antonio" (4.1.58-60).
Bassanio then comes forward and offers Shylock the six thousand ducats as repayment for the loan. Shylock tells him that even if there were six times as much money offered to him, he would not take it. The Duke asks Shylock, "How shalt thou hope for mercy, rend'ring none?" (4.1.87). Shylock responds that he is doing nothing wrong, and compares his contract with Antonio to the Christian slave trade. He tells the Duke that he does not demand that the Christians should free their slaves, and therefore the Christians should not demand that he free Antonio.
The Duke threatens to dismiss the court without settling the suit brought by Shylock if Doctor Bellario fails to arrive. Salerio tells him that a messenger has just come from Bellario, and Nerissa enters dressed as a man and informs the Duke that Bellario has sent a letter to him. Shylock whets his knife on his shoe, confident that he will receive his pound of flesh.
The letter from Bellario recommends a young and educated doctor to arbitrate the case. The Duke asks where the young doctor is, and Nerissa tells him that he is waiting outside to be admitted into the court. The Duke orders him to be brought in, and Portia enters dressed as a man, pretending to be a doctor named Balthasar.
Portia tells the Duke that she has thoroughly studied the case and then asks, "Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?" (4.1.169). Antonio and Shylock both step forward, and Portia asks Antonio if he confesses to signing the contract. He does, and Portia then says that Shylock therefore must be merciful. She delivers a short speech on mercy, but Shylock ignores it and demands the contract be fulfilled. Portia then asks if no one has been able to repay the amount, but since Shylock has refused the money there is nothing she can do to make him take it. She comments that she must therefore side with Shylock.
Shylock, impressed that Portia is supporting his case, says, "A Daniel come to judgment, yea, a Daniel!" (4.1.218). Portia rules that Shylock has the right to claim a pound of flesh from next to Antonio's heart according to the bond. Antonio's bosom is laid bare and Shylock gets ready to cut. Portia asks him if he has a surgeon ready to stop the bleeding once he has taken his pound of flesh. Shylock says, "I cannot find it. 'Tis not in the bond" (4.1.257).
Just as Shylock is about to start cutting again, Portia says that the bond does not give him permission to shed Antonio's blood. The laws of Venice are such that if any Venetian's blood is shed, all the goods and lands of the perpetrator may be confiscated by the state. Shylock realizes that he cannot cut the flesh without drawing blood, and instead agrees to take the money instead. However, Portia is not willing to back down and instead only gives him the pound of flesh, further saying that if he takes a tiny bit more or less he will be put to death himself. Shylock, unable to comply with this stipulation, decides to withdraw his case.
Portia tells Shylock to remain in the court. She says that Venice has a further law which says that if any foreigner tries to kill a Venetian, the foreigner will have half of his property go to the Venetian against whom he plotted, and the state will receive the other half. In addition, the life of the foreigner will be in the hands of the Duke, who may decide to do whatever he wants to. Shylock is forced to kneel on the ground before the court, but the Duke pardons his life before he can beg for mercy.
Shylock instead asks the Duke to kill him, saying, "Nay, take my life and all, pardon not that. / You take my house when you do take the prop / That doth sustain my house; you take my life /When you do take the means whereby I live" (4.1.369-373). Antonio intervenes on Shylock's behalf, and asks the Duke to allow Shylock to keep half of his wealth. He further offers to take care of the half he was awarded as a form of inheritance for Jessica and Lorenzo. The only requirements Antonio puts on his offer are that Shylock must convert and become a Christian, and further that he must give everything he owns to Lorenzo upon his death.
Shylock, wretched and having lost everything he owns, tells the court that he is content to accept these conditions. The Duke leaves and tells Antonio to thank the young doctor who has saved his life. Bassanio and Graziano go to Portia and thank her profusely, and Bassanio offers the young doctor anything he wants. Portia decides to test her husband's trustworthiness, and asks him for the engagement ring, the ring which she made him vow never to part with. He refuses, and Portia and Nerissa leave. However, at Antonio's urging, Bassanio takes off the ring and gives it to Graziano, telling him to take it to Portia and invite her to dinner that night at Antonio's.


SCENE I. Venice. A court of justice.

SCENE I. Venice. A court of justice.

SCENE I. Venice. A court of justice.
Enter the DUKE, the Magnificoes, ANTONIO, BASSANIO, GRATIANO, SALERIO, and others
Enter SHYLOCK
Enter NERISSA, dressed like a lawyer's clerk
Presenting a letter
Enter PORTIA, dressed like a doctor of laws
Aside
Exit SHYLOCK
Exeunt Duke and his train
To ANTONIO
To BASSANIO
Exeunt Portia and Nerissa
Exit Gratiano